The Creative Spirit of the Leader’s Soul: Using Antenarratives to Explain Metanoia
By Kevin Grant, PhD
The chapter begins with the idea the human soul is not meant to be understood, therefore we watch the human soul of the leader as it evolves through the poetics of everyday life. Using storytelling as an antenarrative from metanoia experiences, we gain insight into the creative spirit of the leader’s soul as it takes shape. In this chapter two individuals retell their metanoia experience using reflective thinking, so we can track the process of personal transformation and changed behavior. Although these stories already have a BME (beginning, middle and end), the chapter uses antenarrative theory to provide a better understanding of how individuals move through a metanoia. Like a butterfly morphing into a unique creature with their colors and shaped wings the leader is also becoming a person who is unique and creative. Once the experience is complete the individual discovers a life changing turnaround in their behavior and begins to influence others and the organization. Finally, this leads to two implications for leaders; sense-making and compassionate leadership.
This chapter begins with the theme ―the human soul is not meant to be understood.” However, the leader‘s soul evolves through the poetics of everyday life. Using this as a theme, a metanoia experience is introduced to explain an individual‘s transpersonal encounter. After the encounter the person decides to change the way they feel and think. As the leader experiences an unpredictable event, a story begins to evolve where we begin to see significant behavioral changes in the person‘s life. Thus, the story is considered to be an antenarrative because of the unpredictable outcome from the occurrence and the leader‘s need to move away from the path they once predicted. This chapter will explain the experience of having a metanoia and why leaders go through this encounter. Using antenarrative theory, developed by Boje (2001), this encounter reveals a morphing process where a story begins to develop as the individual moves through this unexpected and spontaneous event.
Most people would agree that good leaders are good storytellers (Boje, 1991). Stories help inspire action because they transport the listener to an experience of events by conveying emotion and creating a picture of what happened, and why it happened. Stories help change our minds and in doing so change our behaviors. Storytelling is an important skill for leaders because it takes us away from the ordinary experience and seizes our attention. In fact stories can help us set aside the practical experiences of life so in the end the soul can be served. This is what this chapter is about; it‘s about the stories of two leaders who experienced a transpersonal experience, and adapted new behaviors which brought about new meaning and purpose in their lives
Leaders recognize transpersonal (spiritual) leadership is the development of one‘s self, who goes beyond their own ego and serves others while influencing the organization to create a genuine outcome of care. Reading about these experiences we begin to understand the leader‘s creative spirit through antenarratives as the leader’s soul began to take shape. Grounded theory explaining antenarrative by Boje (2008) brings about new meaning to storytelling.
Most stories have a beginning, middle and end (BME), meaning they are retrospective or looking back, however living stories go on forever. In a living story there is no beginning and the ending is not in sight. Living stories of leaders who experience a personal transformation is best understood using the theoretical concept of antenarrative introduced by Boje (2008). When using the theory of antenarrative to explain a personal transformation it is best described as a “prenarrative” or a “bet” (ante) that you can tell the antenarrative will become a living story that is world-changing and transforming. Antenarrative is some kind of morphing connective of narrative and living story therefore it is prospective sense-making (looking-forward) to transform the future with storytelling (pg.1). Antenarratives are the pre-story that reveal the leader‘s soul while providing insight into their own creativity after they have found meaning and purpose in their life. Stories shared by leaders who experienced a transcendent experience ended with the individual expressing a higher calling in life.
When leaders talk about their higher calling they are expressing a greater sense of transcendence, or having a feeling of being called through one‘s work or vocation. Those who practice spiritual leadership, because of their higher calling, influence their followers and have a high regard for one‘s self and developing good quality relationships with others. This in turn helps create a greater sense of meaning and purpose with the capacity to effectively manage one‘s surrounding world, the ability to follow inner convictions, and a sense of continuing growth and self-realization.
The purpose of this chapter is show how antenarratives can be used to explain a metanoia experience or a deep personal transformation. The experience coming from having a metanoia is termed in the Greek as a shift of mind or moving from the old way of thinking to a new way of thinking. A metanoia experience is when a leader makes a ―shift‖ (change) of ―mind‖ (thoughts and feelings) and as a result is transformed to a follower-centered leader. In other words, the leader has a change in the way they think and feel, or take on a new behavior.
The word metanoia literally means transcendence of the mind. In the Gnostic action of Christianity, it took on the meaning of an awakening of shared intuition and direct knowing of the highest ultimate reality, i.e. God. Upon asking individuals concerning a personal metanoia experience, the individual will respond by speaking of something bigger than him or herself where they felt a sense of being connected (Korac-Kakabadse, Kouzmin, and Kakabadse, 2002). People attempt to recapture these feelings of being a part of something bigger than him or herself because of having a metanoia experience that they will continue to search for this experience again for the rest of their life.
Sanford (1970) speaks of metanoia as being a ―turning about‖ rather than being sorry for something we have done. The turning about is the ―reversal of one‘s self and of one‘s life‖ (p. 111). Sanford (1970) contends that ―metanoia includes turning away from our identification with our outer masks, and confronting what lies behind that mask: what looks like an inner adversary or enemy‖ (p. 111).
Applying the metanoia experience to the theory of antenarrative means the experience is a ―bet‖ on the future. A leader who has a metanoia, which is spontaneous and unexpected, is considered a bet on the future as the metanoia process takes place the leader does not know what the final transformational outcome will be because the leader is forced to make a decision to change or not to change their behavior. However, the outcome from the experience is known after, not before. Thus, after the leader is transformed a living story is shared with others that is difficult to explain. Boje (2000) views this experience by leaders as a discovery to becoming a ―spiritual leader‖ which requires moving beyond one‘s self.
The design of this chapter is to introduce metanoia using storytelling from an antenarrative perspective. However, the limitation is when these stories are read later on in the chapter, we will know the beginning, middle, and end (BME) of the story. Therefore, my attempt is to explain how one moves through the metanoia and why this experience is an antenarrative and eventually evolves into a living story when told to others. To fully understand stories from individuals, who described this experience, specific terminology is required.
Ryle (1949) provides a descriptive meaning of ―mind‖ which does not stand for another organ. It signifies my abilities and proneness to do certain sorts of things and not some piece of personal apparatus without which I could not or would not do them (p. 168). Therefore, the mind functions to give us a way of discussing the person‘s capacities, abilities, and activities (Sayward, 1983).
Mitroff and Denton (1999) defined ―spirituality as one being connected to one‘s self, others, and the entire universe. The idea of being connected to one‘s self, others, and the entire universe are called ―interconnectedness‖ (Mitroff & Denton, 1999, p. 83). When a person senses interconnectedness at work the person brings more of themselves to work where they feel they can deploy their full creativity, emotions, and intellect at work (Mitroff & Denton, 1999, p.83). This definition of interconnectedness agrees with Howard‘s (2006) thinking whereby humans are inextricably made up of mind, body, emotions and spirit. In conclusion, we are all looking for meaning in life (Howard, 2006) and spirituality is about interconnectedness within the world, along with our desire to tap into our deeper resources (Mitroff & Denton, 1999).
Fry (2003) defines spiritual leadership as the ―values, attitudes, and behaviors necessary to intrinsically motivate one‘s self and others so that they have a sense of spiritual survival through calling and membership‖ (p. 694–695). In this chapter, spiritual leadership is treated more as an observable phenomenon occurring when a person in a leadership position embodies spiritual values, such as integrity, humility, compassion, agapao, and altruism thereby creating the self as an example of someone who can be trusted, relied upon, and admired. Spiritual leadership is demonstrated through behavior, whether in the individual‘s ethics, compassion, or respectful treatment of others (Reave, 2005). Spiritual individuals are more likely to demonstrate spiritual leadership, but a person does not have to be spiritual or religious to provide spiritual leadership (Reave, 2005).
“A value is an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite mode of conduct or end-state of existence (Rokeach, 1973, p. 5). ―Therefore, values are multifaceted standards that guide our conduct in a variety of ways‖ (p. 13). The growing literature about spirituality in the workplace produces an emerging consensus on which spiritual values are primary or core. The emerging consensus is summarized in the following list (Kriger & Seng, 2005, pp. 302-311):
g) Courage/inner strength
j) Loving kindness
m) Service to others
q) Stillness/inner peace
” Spirit refers to the vital energizing force or principle in the person, the core of self‖ (Fairholm, 1996, p. 11). Spirit in the Bible is translated from the Greek word ―pneuma‖ (Shawchuck and Heuser, 1996). There are two meanings of pneuma; life‘s breath or the breath of life, and wind or the force of wind that blows (p. 121).
Soul of the Leader
The title of this chapter is called the creative spirit and soul of the leader. The title came after much researching and writing on spiritual leadership over a six year period. In my research I found leaders do change the way they think and feel, while those who observe the leader‘s new behavior will ask the question ―what happened?‖ The leader answers by stating they had an experience which is difficult to explain. The reason is because in most cases the leader will describe the experience as an emotionally charged experience. From this specific experience the person changed from who they were to who they are
The key word in title is ―soul,‖ which links to the type of story that is shared in this chapter. Spiritual writers use ―soul‖ to speak not about something a person has but about who a person most deeply is. According to Benefiel (2008) her understanding of soul, is a deep essence of a person who may find expression through religious faith or it may find expression in other ways (p. 21). A simpler understanding is the emotional and relational depth of the leader and their yearings to develop and evolve into what the leader wants to become.
The Catholic Encyclopedia (2009) defines soul as the ultimate internal principle by which we think, feel, and will, and by which our bodies are animated. The term ―mind‖ usually denotes this principle as the subject of our conscious states, while “soul” denotes the source of our vegetative activities as well (Maher,& Bolland,1912, p.1).
Living from soul is living from the core of our true nature, where divine energy infuses our being with loving wisdom. Then the divine image in which scripture says we are made is freed to shine through our being and doing. When we are empowered to live from soul in our daily activities, we become a blessing to life (Edwards, 1997)
The Creative Leader
The other key word in the title is as important as soul and that is ―creative.‖ An understanding of a creative leader is one who is fully engaged and using all their creative gifts to make the organization better. Creative leaders understand that leadership is a shared responsibility and fosters an environment that is committed, loyal, and productive. Using their creativity the leader reaches their higher calling which came through a personal emotionally charged experience which is called metanoia. Understanding of these terms provides insight about an encounter described by individuals who experience deep change and personal transformation called the ―dark night of the soul‖ which is similar to having a metanoia.
Dark Night of the Soul
When an individual begins their metanoia journey usually they are in the middle of a difficult experience such as; a divorce, a loss of a loved one, a depression, a business failure, or a nagging emotion which will not go away. For some, these problems or situations are to be solved, while in most cases these problems become a source of great despair. Moore (2004) describes these difficult times as not a ―surface challenge but a development that takes you away from the joy of your ordinary life‖ (p.XIV).
Many leaders who reach a point in their life where they are faced with a challenge try to solve the problem so they can be happy. However, happiness is a sensation that evaporates quickly, and the problem never gets solved. Hoping the problem will fade away people spend most of their time avoiding life‘s problems and channel them towards ambitions, addictions, and preoccupations. Examples of this are observed in leaders who become workaholics, ignore their families, engage in medications to numb the pain, and begin to isolate themselves from others. Moore (2004) contends a dark night is a person‘s way of returning to the living. However, when one has the feeling of going beyond self and discovering something more powerful than what he humanly capable of doing is called a ―state of liminality‖.
Using Antenarrative in Storytelling
What follows are two stories by leaders who experienced transpersonal transformation or metanoias. The tendency is to read the stories with a beginning, middle and end because the story is being retold and the authors are being retrospective. However, these stories can also be read using the antenarrative theory. Each author is describing their metanoia not knowing what the ending will be.
Narrative may be seen as a deterministically constituted structured expression of a thematic story about an event or set of connected events. If antenarrative is pre-narrative, then it may develop into narrative through the use of patterning processes given that a set of events can be conceptualized and related (Yolles, p. 76). It is also maintained in phenomenology that access to reality is mediated through consciousness and its attendant capacity for understanding. For many, understanding comes from knowledge, and knowledge is acquired from the experience of phenomenal reality (p. 82).
The first story is retold by David Boje, who developed the theory of antenarrative. The backdrop in David‘s story is his personal search for meaning and purpose in his life, after a personal trauma he experienced in the Vietnam War. The story begins after David came home from the war and he begins to search his soul to determine his future or higher calling. Following is David‘s transcribed story which he describes as his metanoia experience.
“The Potato Chip Story”. (By permission May 15, 2009)”
A storytelling about Transcendental Situations
1. Narration: David is usually too busy to notice things, like the rhythm of time. But, he realized this rhythm after facing lots of rejection at UCLA. It was 1982, and he just decided to slow down, do nothing, read his bible, and figure out a path for his life. It can all be about taking time to do some reflexivity, to tune into something transcendental, where something quite spiritual may happen.
2. David: (Trying to decide between doing story or more quantitative kinds of research) ―OK God, what do you say? I could do either. Be quantitative or do the qualitative story research…‖
3. God: (no answer). 4. David: (Opens NIV Pictorial Bible,1978; picks a page at random, opens to pp 10-11, begins to read: He decides to substitute the word ‗story‘ for passage.
SCENE 2: The Miracle
5. David: ―OK God, it seems to me, if this is a sign, that story research is the way to go. Yet, I am kind of a skeptic. I therefore humbly request a sign. Not a lightning bolt, but a definite sign.‖
6.God: (no answer)
7. David: (takes a break, goes from 5th floor to 1st, to the Potlatch (coffee & snack room). David puts in 35 cents, and clicks A12, for some Potato Chips. The chips and candy hang in the machine on metal spirals. The spiral turns and a bag of chips drops into the slot. But, the spiral keeps turning (11 more times).
8. David: (speaking aloud to himself) ―It can‘t be. There are 12 bags of chips in the bin.‖
SCENE 3: IN ELEVATOR
9. David: (hands bag to student) ―I prayed to God for an answer to a question. I put in my money and got 12 bags of chips. Here have one!‖
10. Student: ―You think it‘s a miracle?‖
11. David: ―Don‘t know. Does God work through machines.‖
12. Student: ―My guess is God can do anything in anyway.‖
13. David: (going to each secretary on 5th floor) ―Can you believe it? I put a question to God, asked for a sign. I put in 35 cents and got 12 bags of potato chips.‖
14. Secretary 1: ―12 is a biblical number.‖
15. David: ―There are 12 apostles.‖
16. Secretary 2: ―The 12 tribes of Israel.‖
17. David: ―I think there are 12 angels.‖
18. Secretary 1: ―12 gates‖
SCENE 4: Dénouement
19. David: ―Thanks God. I‘ll take the chips as a sign that story is the path I will take from here on out.‖ (to himself, ‗guess a machine miracle is the kind that takes some faith to believe in.‘) The next day. David is in the Potlatch (1st floor coffee & snack lounge)
20. David: (to man serving the machine) ―May I ask you a question?‖ Serviceman: ―Sure, what is it?‖
21. David: ―Is there anything wrong with this machine?‖
22. Serviceman: ―Not that I know of. Why do you ask?‖
23. David: ―I was in here yesterday, and I put in 35 cents, and 12 bags came out. The thing just kept spitting them out.‖
24. Serviceman: ―No cannot be. You see you put in the coins, and it will only allow this here thing to turn just once. Its part of the safeguard of the mechanism…‖
25. David: ―So you are sure, that the machine cannot just keep turning out chips?‖
26. Serviceman: ―No way.‖
SCENE 5: Changed Behavior
27. Spiritual Leadership – Where does inspiration come from? Slowing down, meditation and prayer, worked for me. Spiritual leaders tune in, and respond. And every once in a great while, miracles do happen. I‘ve had several. Orienting your leadership on a spiritual place, is another way to go. It should be noted that this transcript is taken directly from David‘s personal life experience, and a descriptive transpersonal experience which he termed his metanoia.
The second story comes for the Biblical text in Psalms 25. The story is King David‘s (KD) personal metanoia from a paraphrase by Pul, a Franscian Sister (1983). David‘s personal reflection explains his metanoia and how his behavior was transformed.
THE JOURNEY THAT IS METANOIA A PARAPHRASE OF PSALM 25
1. One more time I stretch my heart to receive your word.
2. Difficult as it is for me to trust you, I want to abandon
3. My old enemy, fear.
4. You ask me again that I take up the journey
5. That is metanoia.
6. That I prepare myself for new moments of fidelity.
7. I mean today these words so oft-prayed:
8. Make known to me my path—
9. Show me the way you would have me follow-
10. Guide me as I discern the signs and the signals
11. Of your beckoning—
12. I have been waiting upon your word.
13. I know that grace is never lacking
14. And that strength and courage will be bestowed
15. I know that my weakness is not the obstacle,
16. Nor my slowness to convert.
17. You remind gently, ever and again, of own restless search.
18. In so many little ways you point the one way.
19. At my first response you plant peace in my heart.
20. I know that change is inevitable.
21. I know that I cannot retreat from poverty and the demands
22. Of our human community.
23. Your words will haunt me until I surrender.
24. When fear prompts me to distraction and excuse,
25. You place in my path a need I cannot refuse.
26. I experience so much fullness and I taste the promise
27. Of your support.
28. For surely when I dare to go where I fear to go,
29. I become aware of the security of your friendship.
30. And my eyes are on your face in the faces of those I meet,
31. And my feet are freed for walking.
32. Keep looking at me, and look after me,
33. For I feel so very alone and unsure
34. I drain my energies wrestling with the unknown
35. And my destination remains but a shadow (pp. 333-334).
Linking Metanoia to Antenarrative
Both author‘s experiences are portrayed as a metanoia experience. Any individual who is experiencing a metanoia will state this is a before story or an antenarraitve because of the unpredictability of the current encounter. After having the metanoia the person becomes reflective or is looking back and thus the story becomes living. By retelling these two living stories similar themes begin to evolve explaining why a metanoia is an antenarrative. It should be noted that when a person is moving through a metanoia the eventual story is evolving, which is why it‘s an antenarrative. Since it is experiential, it is only through the experience that the final living story is revealed.
What follows is a table that explains why a metanoia experience is considered an antenarrative. Using Boje‘s explanation of antenarrative, the following table was designed to compare and contrast antenarraitve to metanoia. So far the chapter has established that an antenarrative is a pre-story or looking ahead. In other words the living story is evolving, therefore it does not have a true BME yet. In the same context a metanoia is a pre-story where the leader is looking forward, while their behavior is morphing. The final outcome of the story may take time, but as the actual metanoia takes place the leader is beginning to move through personal transformation.
The unpredictability of a metanoia means it‘s unplanned, spontaneous, unexpected or unprompted. In the first story Boje receives 12 bags of chips unexpectedly and links the event to a sign from God. Because the event is spontaneous Boje is not sure why this is happening and the story is fragmented therefore it‘s considered a pre-story. There is no cohesive accomplishment of a narrative where we see a BME to the story. We are left guessing what will happen to Boje and we try to piece the pre-story together to generate some type of meaning.
In the second story King David (KD) is in the process of repeating another journey called metanoia. The author can only describe what happened in the past, but now he is not sure what the new metanoia experience will reveal. (KD) mentions in his personal journal that ―new moments of fidelity‖ will occur but he is not sure what the outcome will be. The key point in using the term unpredictability is that both the antenarrative and metanoia are answering the question: what is going on here?
Not a Story Yet
Throughout both stories there are comments by both authors indicating their experiences are evolving and it is ―not a story yet.‖ Both authors are moving through their metanoia experience hoping to find out the true meaning of their experience. With metanoias the person is morphing and experiencing a personal transformation with an unpredictable outcome. In the same context antenarraitive is a pre-story or a before story and as Boje stated in his definition of antenarrative the story is also morphing.
With both the antenarrative and metanoia there is no predetermined outcome. Not having the ability to predict the outcome both authors are telling their story with a bet on a future outcome that is life changing. As the antenarrative begins to evolve from the metanoia experience the person becomes emotionally charged because the leader is working through a radical change in the way they feel and think. As the person describes their emotions we are not quite sure how the person‘s behavior will be transformed. In Boje‘s story he discovered a new construct called spiritual leadership. From his experience he adapts a more meditative state or prayerful approach to his leadership.
In (KD‘s) case he begins to describe his transformation as having a greater security in God and building new relationships with others. Although David has a transformational outcome, uncertainty was always on his mind.
Having the ability to predict the future always brings about a sense of comfort and assurance. With any outcome necessary adjustments are made to reduce stress. The metanoia experience involves unpredictability about the future as one awaits future outcomes. Once the outcome is known the person takes on a new outlook of how to lead. The same is true with antenarratives, the story is evolving and the future is being formed as the person creates their story. Once the story is complete the person uses personal reflection (looking backwards) to better understand the situation and study lessons learned. From these lessons the person can forward with new behavior and perspective.
Becomes a Living Story
Once the antenarrative is complete it now has a BME and is retold as a living story for others to learn from. Maybe the story will lie dormant for a period a time, but retold to bring about new meaning for others. As others analyze these living stories again new perspectives bring about new meaning and purpose in those reading the story.
Implications for Leaders
This section points out significant implications leaders gain from using antenarratives to better understand individuals as they move through change in the workplace. The only constant variable in the workplace is change, where individuals begin to feel a sense of loss, anger, frustration, and grief. Many are looking for answers to their pain and frequently look to leadership to carry their burdens and come up with new solutions. This period of confusion or uncertainty leads to leadership sense-making.
There are many definitions of sense-making; for me it is the transformation of raw experience into intelligible world views. It’s a bit like what mapmakers do when they try to make sense of an unfamiliar place by capturing it on paper. But the crucial point in cartography is that there is no one best map of a particular terrain. Similarly, sense-making lends itself to multiple, conflicting interpretations, all of which are plausible.
Sense-making involves turning circumstances into a situation that can be comprehended in words and moves towards a springboard of action. Using sense-making means looking backwards to rationalize what people are doing or answering the question what does this event mean? People are essentially saying, this event makes no sense and want to know what the story is. Answering the question ―what‘s the story?‖ emerge from retrospect, connections with past experience, and dialogue among people. Answers to the question ―now what?‖ emerge from presumptions about the future, articulation concurrent with action, and projects that become increasingly clear as they unfold. When people then ask ―now what should I do?‖ this added question has the force of bringing meaning into existence, meaning that they hope is stable enough for them to act into the future, continue to act, and to have the sense that they remain in touch with the continuing flow of experience.
As leaders the tendency is to fix the situation as well as the individual. However, the individual is going through an emotionally charged experience with uncertain outcomes. Emotions and behavior are raw and as leaders we should be aware of their pain. Managerial books have failed when people are searching for meaning, and a reason to hope for the future. What these books have failed in doing, leaders can do in times of confusion and collective pain (Dutton, Frost, Worline, Lilius, & Kanov 2002). During times of confusion and pain leaders demonstrate acts of compassion which influence a response by others to be compassionate in the organization.
Compassion means to be together with someone‘s pain. The prefix ―com‖ means together with and the word ―passion‖ has the same root as the word pain (Heifetz & Linsky, 2002). According to Boyatzis, Smith, and Blaize (2006) compassion is defined as having three components: 1) empathy or understanding the feelings of others, 2) caring for the other person, and 3) willingness to act in response to the person‘s feelings. Compassionate leadership is characterized by long enduring leadership which makes a positive difference (Briner & Pritchard, 1997). A compassionate leader is one who seeks the greatest good for the individual, the group, and the mission (Briner & Pritchard, 1997). The compassionate leader feels the pain of individuals and seeks to help them reach their goals, aspirations, and dreams (Briner & Pritchard, 1997; Boyatzis, Smith, & Blaize, 2006).
Leaders can come alongside those who are feeling the pain of change and listen to their antenarrative stories. After listening to the emotions of the individual the leader can identify behavior traits, and determine the willingness of the person to move through change. The antenarrative discussion helps the leader to begin predicting the outcome from the stories although the story is still morphing. This brings the leader closer to the workplace rather than making reactionary decisions after the story is complete.
By listening and interpreting antenarratives of individuals the leader intentions are to serve others which create meaning and purpose in the inner self. This then creates an organizational culture where caring for others and self initiates a sense of membership and value.
To summarize, this chapter highlights several distinguishing features of metanoia and antenarratives. Both come from a genesis of disruptive ambiguity or a sense of uncertainty. Not knowing what the future story will become the individual is asking ―now what?‖ As the story evolves through personal transformation the individual begins to experience a change in the way they feel and think.
Unfortunately we hear about the story after it happens and ask the question ―what‘s the story?‖ Being retrospective the person retells their story. However, the new story will become an antenarrative when the individual asks the question again ―now what?‖ and begin to bet on the future. The metanoia experience loops back where we see individuals have multiple metanoias and experience multiple transpersonal shifts of mind. This type of antenarrative is best described as a cycle antenarrative rather than linear.
Leaders need to recognize that individuals are moving through their emotions and feelings trying to discover meaning and purpose in their lives. Knowing this, leaders must listen to the stories of others and begin to anticipate what the ending behavior of the individual.